Trafficking in persons in latin america and the caribbean congressional research service 2 slavery. Aug 23, 2012 her presentation also made reference to the push and pull factors associated with drug trafficking, use and addiction in the caribbean ranging from the psychosocial impact and resulting economic hardship. Smaller numbers of latin american tip victims are trafficking to europe and asia. Drug trafficking in the caribbean black america web. Illicit drug trafficking from the caribbean up us official. Request pdf the war on human trafficking in the caribbean encouraged by the us, the caribbean is being drawn into a global panic over human trafficking, leading to greater policing and. The new strategy lays out six objectives for combatting drug trafficking and transnational organized crime in puerto rico and the virgin islands, a mix of hard and soft approaches that range from reducing youth drug use to running more effective interdiction operations. Most notably, smuggling is a crime against a countrys borders, whereas human trafficking is a crime against a person. Coverage of drug trafficking and organized crime in latin america.
Security cooperation in the caribbean brig general edmund dillon. Illicit trafficking of migrants and trafficking in persons. The 2018 national drug threat assessment ndta1 is a comprehensive strategic assessment of the threat posed to the united states by domestic and international drug trafficking and the abuse of illicit drugs. The war on human trafficking in the caribbean request pdf. The violent drug market in mexico and lessons from colombia. Drug use, abuse significantly impacting caribbean caricom. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human wellbeing, and profitability to criminals schauer and. According to siglo21, the us state department says the number of maritime trafficking events occurring on the caribbean side of the central american isthmus numbered 541 in 2011, compared to the pacific oceans 405 traffickingrelated incidents, highlighting the.
Maritime drug trafficking in latin america is the primary mean of transportation of illegal drugs produced in this region to global consumer markets. Cocaine is the primary illegal drug smuggled through maritime routes because all of its cultivation and production it is settled in the andean region of south america. During the 1980s the caribbean sea was the favored route for traffickers of latin america, giving rise for approximately 80% of all the cocaine bounded for the united states. Amended effective november 1, 2007 see appendix c, amendment 711. This report provides a summary of the discussions of nearly 50 journalists and academics from latin america and the caribbean on media coverage of organized crime and drug trafficking in the continent. Caribbean basic facts united nations office on drugs and crime. Transnational organized crime in central america and the caribbean. The majority of persons convicted of trafficking in persons were nationals of the dominican republic with three persons from the caribbean, asia, and western europe. Jun 11, 2017 the main driving force for the high rates of crime and violence in the region is the intraregional drug trafficking trade which has led to a steady increase in the availability of firearms. A child victim of trafficking is any person under 18 who is recruited, transported, transferred, harboured or received for the purpose of exploitation, either within or outside a country. In this short blog, i will try to explain why an increase in drug trafficking has contributed to a steady rise in violence in the northern triangle, thus incentivizing migration. Us will increase military presence in the caribbean to fight. While law enforcement is obsessed with seeking out and confiscating contraband on the high seas there is a crime that, if left unchecked, will become a problem in antigua and other caribbean islands. Guyana tier 2 guyana is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor.
This increase in drug trafficking and associated violent crimes and drug abuse contribute to social problems in puerto rico and the u. Jun 25, 2014 illicit drug trafficking from the caribbean up us official. Guyanese nationals have been subjected to human trafficking in other countries in the caribbean region. Huge south american cartels utilize the geographical advantages of the caribbean basin as a channel between the supply markets in south america and the demand markets in the u. Drug trafficking in the caribbean popular drug smuggling. Drug trafficking is defined as the possession of an illegal drug in a fixed quantity that constitutes that the drug is going to be sold merriamwebster. Victims of human trafficking are subjected to force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of commercial sex, debt bondage, or forced labor. As long the demand for drugs persists in the united states and europe, drug trafficking in the caribbean will be nearly impossible to control. William brownfield, the state departments senior antidrugs official, says that 16% of cocaine imports into the united states came through the caribbean islands last year. Us releases new plan for caribbean drug trafficking. International drug trafficking has contributed to drug abuse, and has increased crime and violence at the local level. The latest trafficking in persons 2016 report from the u. Doc examining drug trafficking in jamaica tamara taylor.
A complex reality is presented which is built upon the lies and deceptions of the war on drugs, the complicity of the elites of the caribbean with the illicit trade and the failure of the agencies charged with interdicting the illicit trade in the caribbean. The french territories of martinique, guadeloupe and french guiana do the same for europe. Since mexico in 2006 joined colombia in waging a fullout war against local drug cartelsboth with significant support from the united statesthe costs of the. And even as violence levels have dropped in puerto rico from a record 1,164 murders in 2011, to just 681 in 2014 the document notes that there is a strong nexus between drug trafficking and violent crimes, and that most drugrelated crimes in puerto rico have to do with trafficking rather than consuming drugs. The psychosocial blow, according to reynolds, could start with mere experimentation, develop into social exclusion, deterioration of family. Jamaica, a major marijuana producer, has seen increased cocaine trafficking, largely. Pdf drug trafficking and gang violence in the caribbean. While the drug trafficking through the eastern caribbean has increased, it only represents a small percentage of the total flow from south america. Trafficking in persons tip for the purpose of exploitation is a lucrative. This paper is one of the first attempts to analyse the combined effect of the illegal drug trade and the recent surge in criminal gang activity in the three largest englishspeaking caribbean jamaica, trinidad and tobago and guyana. Drug trafficking, starting as early as the 1970s, has plagued the west indian islands.
The prevalence of use of cocaine remains high in central america and the caribbean in 20, and the sub region continues to be. Caribbean basic facts united nations office on drugs and. Today, after decades of failing to adequately control drug consumption, an even graver problem has emerged. A programming guide april 20 this report was made possible by the support of the american people through the u. Drug trafficking and the threat to nigerias national. Maritime drug trafficking in latin america wikipedia. Finding victims of human trafficking page vi executive summary introduction human trafficking is a newly recognized but fastgrowing criminal industry. The spate of violence accompanying the search for coke has brought wide international attention to the island drug picture as well as the threat that drug trafficking poses to the entire caribbean region. It is a pleasure to appear before you today to discuss drug trafficking in the caribbean, and. According to the united nations world drug report, 183 million people, or 3. Drugrelated corruption and money laundering remain problems in many countries. America, with the caribbean referenced only contextually. Drugs and crime in central america and the caribbean. Victims are exploited within their own countries and trafficked to other countries in the region.
Childrens fund, a combination of gangs, crime families, and drug trafficking organizations run. The documented cocaine flow from the source zone to the united states via the caribbeanincluding puerto rico, the dominican republic, and eastern caribbean countrieshas more. A rising tide of drug trafficking in caribbean danica coto, david mcfadden, associated press kingston, jamaica ap assault rifles at the ready, police in a speedboat scan the coastline as they slice through the slategray water, aware that the rocky shorelines and fishing villages that line parts of southern jamaica are not always very. Central america and the caribbean was the only region in which cocaine seizures rose in 20 unodc, 2015. The exploratory assessment was published primarily as a qualitative exercise. Force on organized crime and drug trafficking, a body intended to promote a. Even with a federal presence and a documented human trafficking problem, puerto rico has yet to prosecute a human trafficking case.
The drug trade in the americas has national, regional, and global dimensions, which interact and require multifaceted responses. Drug trafficking, organized crime, and violence in the. The explosion of the drug trade in the region has institutionalized criminal behaviour and increased gang violence. Drug trafficking and violence in the northern triangle. Southern commands enhanced presence will support ongoing wholeofgovernment and internationally supported operations to reduce the availability of illicit drugs and save lives in the united states and throughout the region. Mar 09, 2009 the number of kidnappings in phoenix, arizona, for example, tripled from 48 in 2004 to 241 in 2008. Drugs and security in the caribbean makes it clear that there is no simple solution to the drug threat. The caribbean already has some of the worlds highest murder rates. Human trafficking is not the same crime as smuggling.
Investigations and suspects the authorities reported 72 cases of trafficking in persons investigated between 2010 and 2011. In addition, the editors and contributors identify emerging issues and propose several policy options to address them. The evolution of drug trafficking and organized crime in. To deal with the problem, it is essential that these nations adopt a comprehensive policy to eliminate the problem for once and for all. Central american and mexico remain a major drugsmuggling corridor, but there are signs that traffickers are turning to the caribbean.
The fight against drug trafficking and crime in the americas. Download fulltext pdf download fulltext pdf sex, aids, migration, and prostitution. The trafficking revival will do nothing to bring them down. Within the last decade it has become a global issue affecting nearly every country in the world. Drug trafficking increases in the caribbean youtube. Provide baseline data on perceptions on the scale of the problem within the region. Whether the specific subject is drug trafficking, migration, money laundering, natural disaster, or trade, the premise is that it is better to work together than to go it alone. From punishment to regulation transnationalinstitute in memory of francis taylor cannabis or marihuana is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances in the world. The beginning of the end of the drug trafficking 1%. Together, they present a comprehensive overview of the major trends in drug trafficking and organized crime in the early twentyfirst century. In previous years, trinbagonian victims have been subjected to sex trafficking in the united states and the united kingdom. Caribbean border in total, an estimated 30 percent of illegal drugs now reaching the u.
Trinidad and tobago tier 2 watch list trinidad and tobago is a destination and transit country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and adults subjected to forced labor. Illicit trafficking is a highly fluid enterprise which generally follows the path of least resistance. Cocaine and heroin trafficking in the caribbean exposes the nature and structures of illicit drug trafficking in the caribbean. Drug trafficking in the united states dates back to the 19th century. Counterdrug programs congressional research service summary drug trafficking is viewed as a primary threat to citizen security and u. Trinidad and tobago tier 2 watch list monroe college. Increase research capacity in the eastern caribbean into issues affecting children. Part d offenses involving drugs and narcoterrorism historical note. Us observes uptick in drug trafficking through caribbean. Perspectives on drugs cocaine trafficking to europe. Drug trafficking is an ever mounting international security problem.
Iom published the first edition of the exploratory assessment of trafficking in persons in the caribbean region in 2005 with chapters on the bahamas, barbados, guyana, jamaica, the netherlands antilles, st lucia and suriname. The first is the caribbean, where the dominican republic and jamaica are considered the main hubs, although operations elsewhere appear to have pushed some trafficking through the eastern caribbean. The content was previously published in the iom hivaids and mobile populations in the caribbean. The prevention of trafficking in persons act of grenada was introduced in july 2014. Drug enforcement administration assistance to the caribbean. Trafficking in persons in latin america and the caribbean. Drug trafficking is problematic for any country it touches, but it can. Exploratory assessment of trafficking in persons in the caribbean region ii st. Taking shared responsibility for transnational organized crime.
Jun 30, 2017 authorities in the caribbean call for more funding to help in the battle on drugs as traffickers use trade routes such as the dominican republic to supply the demand in the us. Brig general edmund dillon sl1cooperation has become the predominant theme in discussions of security in the caribbean basin. Pg 344345 this seems to still be the case, especially according to the report. This article appeared in the the americas section of the print. During the same period, 75 persons have been prosecuted, and 17 15 males and 2. The caribbean is the fragile third border of drug trafficking. Governments which perceive drug trafficking and organized crime as security crises have turned to the united states for support, while others denounce u. State department is out and no surprise several caribbean nations have made the list of nations battling with the issue of sex trafficking the term used for the act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for. It is one among many crimes against women that goes unmentioned, unreported and ignored. There are many fundamental differences between the crimes of human trafficking and human smuggling.
Both are entirely separate federal crimes in the united states. Trafficking in persons in latin america and the caribbean congressional research service summary countries in latin america serve as source, transit, and destination countries for trafficking in persons tip. Coverage of drug trafficking and organized crime in latin. Drug shipping routes through the caribbean that were last prominent during the 1980s are being reactivated by south american cartels seeking illegal entry into the country. Drug trafficking organizations dtos and other transnational.
Drugs trafficking in the caribbean full circle the. It was prepared by management systems international and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of usaid or the u. The caribbean s major islands have also seen more drug activity as those routes shift back into the region. From opium to marijuana to cocaine, a variety of substances have been illegally imported, sold and distributed throughout u. Puerto rico is a waystation, physically in the caribbean but within united states customs barriers. Currently, the toll of drug trafficking can be seen in the drug war the u. Download file to see previous pages the cultural values and the social economic problems have also acted as catalysts towards the crime.1295 953 522 1009 213 344 1243 580 1491 707 850 986 1071 1446 571 214 381 629 889 441 1381 73 689 1335 244 1664 1144 1179 735 9 399 1180 772 684 25